What is a battery?

Batteries are devices that store and release electrical energy. When we need power, batteries convert chemical energy into electrical energy. There are several types of batteries, including rechargeable batteries, where the energy conversion can also be reversed.

Batteries are a portable and reliable power source, allowing us to use mobile phones and laptops without them needing to be connected to the power grid.


What is a battery made of?

A battery consists mainly of the following components:

1. Anode

The negative electrode in the battery. During the chemical reaction in the battery, the anode releases electrons.

2. Cathode
The positive electrode in the battery. During the chemical reaction in the battery, the cathode receives electrons.

3. Electrolyte
A substance that conducts ions between the anode and cathode. The electrolyte can be liquid, gel, or solid, depending on the type of battery.

4. Separator
A barrier that prevents the anode and cathode from coming into direct contact, while allowing ions to pass between them. The separator prevents a short circuit in the battery.

5. Container
The outer structure that holds all the components together and protects them.


How does a battery work?

Batteries have an anode (positive electrode) and a cathode (negative electrode). When the battery is in use, the anode releases electrons. The electrons then want to move from the anode to the cathode to balance the charge difference but cannot go directly through the battery. Therefore, there is an electrolyte between the anode and cathode, allowing ions to move between the two electrodes. The ions help complete the flow of electrons.

As electrons move from the anode to the cathode, chemical reactions occur in the battery. These reactions release energy that the electrons carry through the electrical circuit, thus powering the device connected to the battery.

As the battery is used, the amount of chemical substances in the electrodes decreases, and the battery is drained of energy. When the battery is discharged, it must be recharged to restore the chemical substances in the electrodes.